Globalisation is the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. Global integration (globalisation) involves a strategy of consolidating international markets and operations into a single worldwide strategic entity. The 1990s witnessed a wave of regional integration initiatives all over the world. Not wanting to be left out of this promising initiative, the African Union (AU) came up with its domesticated version of globalisation by adopting a vision of having an integrated Africa. In the wake of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Africa, flights were cancelled, borders were closed, and airport entry restrictions were put in place. These measures were likely impediments to integration due to possible reduction in cross-border trading, meetings, and other forms of activity that are enablers of integration.
With the world population reaching 7.2 billion today and, according to the United Nations Population Division, expected to mushroom to 9.6 billion by 2050, the need has never been more crucial for developing an urban model that accommodates the inherent problems of rapidly increasing population growth. The solutions for creating environments that can successfully deal with this massive urban expansion lie in an urban form defined by public transportation and high-density/mixed use development overseen by a modern management system, combined with a focus on sustainability including close-in agriculture and food production. In addition to natural population growth, the pressure on cities will also come from the migration of rural populations to urban areas, particularly in developing countries. Today, 50 percent of the world's population or 3.6 billion people live in urban areas of which 1.8 billion live in the 527 largest cities from Tokyo, Japan to Salem, India. By 2050, it is projected that 75 percent or 7.2 billion people will be living in urban areas. This means that 3.6 billion people will have to be accommodated in existing and new urban settlements. If we assume that the 527 largest urban cities will act as major population magnets, they will double their size absorbing 1.8 billion people. This will still leave a need for new settlements to accommodate the 1.8 billion remaining people. This paper provides solutions for a sustainable urban form based on an infrastructure framework, which will allow other forms of sustainability to take place. This proposal can have a substantial impact on international applications particularly in China and India.
This article draws on the theories of everyday life developed by Henry Lefebvre and on elements of analysis proposed by poststructuralists. It suggests the relevance of this approach for analyzing contemporary society. Sociological theory must be built and rebuilt on a continuous connection with reality as reflected in peoples’ everyday lives, and with a sense of its own limits. Instead of attempting to establish a general model, sociologists could contribute to make people more aware of their social world by revealing everyday interactions. The recent crises and social movements in many parts of the world reveal that sociologists must be cautious about definitive claims, and proceed instead by continuous interpretations and re-interpretations. From this perspective, an effective theory of society can best be built on a foundation of empirical interpretations of everyday life. This involves comprehending how ordinary human beings experience, conceive, and imagine their daily interactions. That is, we must decode the social world according to the everyday and address the practices through which the social world per se is constituted.