Most African countries have depended on international aid post-independence. This dependency has led to a cycle of debt in most African countries. This has ushered in a new era that Dr. Kwame Nkrumah calls neocolonialism. To this day, all colonized states continuously fight the urge to untangle the tentacles of imperialism from the West. This article looks at how international development is used as a tool in international communication to move forward the agenda of Western imperialism. Thereafter, the study introduces development communication, a discipline in communication studies, as a way and means of giving African countries a platform to engage in development in a more communal and dignified way.
Urban public spaces are increasingly sutured with a range of surveillance and sensor technologies claiming to enable new forms of “data based citizen participation,” but often leading to “function-creep,” whereby vast amounts of data are gathered, stored, and analysed in a broad application of urban surveillance. This kind of monitoring and capacity for surveillance connects with attempts by civic authorities to regulate, restrict, rebrand, and reframe urban public spaces and the communities located there. A direct consequence of the increasingly security driven, policed, privatised, and surveilled nature of public space is the exclusion or “unfavourable inclusion” of those considered flawed and unwelcome in the “spectacular” consumption spaces of many major urban centres. This paper considers alternative scenarios, suggesting that cities, places, and spaces and those who seek to use them, can be resilient in working to maintain and extend democratic freedoms and processes, calling sensor and surveillance systems to account. This better informs the implementation of public policy around the design, build, and governance of public space. Moreover, understandings of urban citizenship, social rights, and participation in the sensor saturated, “Big Data” urban environment are interrogated through consideration of forms of citizenship, extending the work of Marshall and Bottomore (1950) by looking at Insurgent and also Ecological citizenships.
In the first part of the twenty-first. century China still faces ongoing challenges of maintaining economic growth while simultaneously creating a more equitable, just, and sustainable society. This issue is set within the context of the rapid growth of mega-urban regions in the East Asian region. Central to this challenge is addressing the deep and growing economic disparities between rural and urban areas and creating a more balanced relationship, particularly in agriculture and food supply which are effected by the spatial spread of urbanization. The key challenges of increasing productivity of food production and the effectiveness of the food supply system pivot on the rapidly urbanizing mega-urban regions of China illustrated by the case study of the lower Yangzi delta mega-urban region. These changes are occurring because of increased urban and international demand for diversified food and industrial crops, loss of good agricultural land, changes in food distribution in response to increased urban and export demand, increased competition for resources such as land and labor, and environmental problems caused by global climate change and pollution. While these outcomes are viewed by some as the inevitable consequences of the twin forces of China’s national economic growth and globalization, we invoke the concepts of synergetic and eco-capital to argue for the development of policies promoting rural-urban synthesis that present a more comprehensive response to the simultaneous challenges of economic growth and environmental and social sustainability.