This study emerges from an understanding of the concept of racial microaggression and from questions arising about the ways in which it might be perceived to exist and manifest across the spectrum of marketing-related communications. The term “racial microaggression” was proposed originally during the 1970s by Chester M. Pierce, a psychiatrist, and referred to as subtle, mundane verbal or non-verbal indignities directed toward black Americans, and, generally, not recognized as such by their perpetrators. In more recent years, researchers have expanded the parameters of research, examining microaggression toward other marginalized populations, predicated on gender, culture, sexual identity/orientation, or disability. In this context, various studies have examined the phenomenon in academic, professional, social and public settings, and it has been the focus of active discussion in academic and professional circles. Given the ubiquity of marketing-related communications, both verbal and nonverbal, delivered through a variety of mediated and in-person experiences, and their immense influence on consumer thought and behavior, it is, thus, inviting to turn a lens in that direction. A racially- and culturally-diverse group of graduate students in integrated marketing communications were asked their perceptions of the existence of microaggression (broadly interpreted, extending beyond race) in marketing communications, and to describe the ways in which they see it expressed. Further, the implications for marketers in the age of increasing market diversity both domestically and internationally are identified.
Globalisation is the intensification of worldwide social relations which link distant localities in such a way that local happenings are shaped by events occurring many miles away and vice versa. Global integration (globalisation) involves a strategy of consolidating international markets and operations into a single worldwide strategic entity. The 1990s witnessed a wave of regional integration initiatives all over the world. Not wanting to be left out of this promising initiative, the African Union (AU) came up with its domesticated version of globalisation by adopting a vision of having an integrated Africa. In the wake of the 2014 Ebola outbreak in Africa, flights were cancelled, borders were closed, and airport entry restrictions were put in place. These measures were likely impediments to integration due to possible reduction in cross-border trading, meetings, and other forms of activity that are enablers of integration.
With the world population reaching 7.2 billion today and, according to the United Nations Population Division, expected to mushroom to 9.6 billion by 2050, the need has never been more crucial for developing an urban model that accommodates the inherent problems of rapidly increasing population growth. The solutions for creating environments that can successfully deal with this massive urban expansion lie in an urban form defined by public transportation and high-density/mixed use development overseen by a modern management system, combined with a focus on sustainability including close-in agriculture and food production. In addition to natural population growth, the pressure on cities will also come from the migration of rural populations to urban areas, particularly in developing countries. Today, 50 percent of the world's population or 3.6 billion people live in urban areas of which 1.8 billion live in the 527 largest cities from Tokyo, Japan to Salem, India. By 2050, it is projected that 75 percent or 7.2 billion people will be living in urban areas. This means that 3.6 billion people will have to be accommodated in existing and new urban settlements. If we assume that the 527 largest urban cities will act as major population magnets, they will double their size absorbing 1.8 billion people. This will still leave a need for new settlements to accommodate the 1.8 billion remaining people. This paper provides solutions for a sustainable urban form based on an infrastructure framework, which will allow other forms of sustainability to take place. This proposal can have a substantial impact on international applications particularly in China and India.