Prior research has identified three primary findings related to job satisfaction and age. The first is that satisfaction reflects a U-shaped cycle in which employees are satisfied with their work early in their careers followed by a dip in satisfaction and then an increase, which continues until retirement. A second finding is that satisfaction decreases with age due to burn-out, disillusionment, or pressure to retire. The third is that there is no relationship between age and satisfaction or indication that satisfaction remains constant with age. These studies reflect various contexts and time periods. The current study provides a comparative analysis of the impact of age and job satisfaction globally based on non-panel longitudinal data from the most recent wave of the International Social Survey Program (Work Orientations IV 2015). The study updates and extends previous research by exploring the impact of changing employment and economic conditions in cross-national contexts.
Evaluating international political strategy includes critiquing the desired future implied in the strategy. Political strategy focuses on trend alteration regarding prevailing polity perceptions, elite composition, polity attitudes, and polity values to actualize a desired political future regarding the nature of the target of the strategy. Critical evaluation of a strategy focuses on the assumptions and capabilities underpinning this effort by the initiator state at trend alteration. US security challenges in Eurasia are legacy issues from the Cold War. The Cold War containment strategy instruments and interests originally targeting the Soviet threat that the US created and developed continue to shape the political discourse regarding security challenges in the region. Comprehension of the political values institutionalized in these bureaucratic, military, and economic vested interests is useful for understanding the political communication topography today. These vested interests embody the international political trends that set the global political framework for what is today, called globalization. The US Trump administration’s conservative populism politically compels it to maintain and intensify the post-Cold War general thrust of US foreign policy in Eurasia and the world: defense and expansion of unilateral US global hegemonic political predominance. It is manifested in the intensification of pressure against perceived challengers to US global influence. Trump’s populist rhetoric of radical change serves essentially a legitimation function to reinforce the primacy of these vested interests in the US foreign policy making process, thus intensifying this general thrust.
President Trump’s decision to withdraw from a multinational climate agreement—commonly known as the Paris Climate Accord—created a tsunami of reactions worldwide. World leaders and business CEOs almost universally decried the decision. The United States’ absence from a leadership position in the fight against the threats and consequences of climate change is a negative development. The need for action is immediate and will need to include all levels of government and private-sector stakeholders. After the US president’s decision to rescind the previous administration’s commitment to the Paris Accord, US cities increased their efforts to address climate change threats. While it may be that these efforts are a result of altruistic desires of the mayors and other elected officials representing their constituents at a local level, cities and communities have a moral and ethical obligation to address concerns and prepare for climate-change-related impacts. This article examines the often-misunderstood nature of the unique relationship between cities, state governments, and the United States federal government. Moreover, the article provides a clear account of how these different entities interact independently and distinctly, facilitating the design of their own responses to climate change threats.